Horses should have access to salt at all times. I provide each of my horses with two salt blocks. One is a plain white salt block that is simply table salt; sodium chloride. The other is a calcium/phosphorus trace mineral salt block. It is sometimes called a 12:12 block because it contains 12% calcium and 12% phosphorus or an equal ratio of calcium to phosphorus, which is good for most adult horses.
Posts Tagged ‘minerals’
Posted in Dental Care, Facilities, Feeding and Nutrition, Grooming, Hoof Care, Management, Sanitation, Veterinary Care, tagged blister beetles, choke cherries, dental care, equine, equine dental work, floating horse's teeth, health care, horse, horse care, horsekeeping, horsekeeping almanac, loose horseshoe, management, minerals, pasture, riparian areas, sanitation, veterinary on August 12, 2010| Leave a Comment »
Where is the summer going ??!! I can’t believe August is nearly half gone.
But no matter what month of the year, we horsekeepers are busy ! Here are a few things pertinent to August here on Long Tail Ranch.
These are excerpts from my book Cherry Hill’s Horsekeeping Almanac.
Fall is a good time to have routine dental work completed: floating teeth, removing wolf teeth if necessary, and removing retained caps. Because a horse’s upper jaw is wider than the lower jaw and horses chew from side to side, as their molars wear, they form sharp points on the outside of the upper molars and the inside of the lower molars. To keep these sharp points from cutting your horse’s tongue or cheeks as he eats, they should be filed (floated) regularly with a special file called a float that attaches to a long handle.
At the same time, your vet can remove caps and/or wolf teeth. Caps are temporary premolars (baby teeth) and molars that have not completely dislodged even though the permanent ones have erupted. In between dental visits, monitor your horse to determine if he needs more frequent visits.
Here are some sign of necessary dental work:
- Bad odor from mouth
- Quids (wads of food around feeding area)
- Feed falling from mouth during eating
- Weight loss
- Sharp points
Remove a Loose Shoe
Use the following procedure to remove a shoe that has become bent, dangerously loose, or has rotated on your horse’s hoof. Necessary tools include : clinch cutter, hammer, pull-offs, and crease nail puller.
- Using the chisel end of the clinch cutter, open the clinches by tapping the spine of the clinch cutter with the hammer. A clinch is the end of the nail folded over; this needs to be opened so that the nails can slide straight through the hoof wall when pulled without taking large hunks of hoof with them.If the shoe has a crease on the bottom, you may be able to use the crease nail puller to extract each nail individually allowing the shoe to come off.Nails with protruding heads can be pulled out using the pull-offs. If you can’t pull the nails out individually, then you will have to remove the shoe with the pull-offs.
- After the clinches have been opened, grab a shoe heel and pry toward the tip of the frog.
- Do the same with the other shoe heel.
- When both heels are loose, grab one side of the shoe at the toe and pry toward the tip of the frog. Repeat around the shoe until it is removed.Never pry toward the outside of the hoof or you risk ripping big chunks out of the hoof wall. As the nail heads protrude from the loosening of the shoe, you can pull them out individually with the pull-offs.
- Pull any nails that may remain in the hoof.
- Protect the bare hoof. Keep the horse confined in soft bedding.
Four to six grams of blister beetles (whole or part, fresh or dried) can kill and 1100 pound horse. That’s because they contain cantharidin, a toxic and caustic poison. There is no antidote. Research has shown it is the striped blister beetle that is the source of cantharidin.
Typically, blister beetles will appear after the first cut (mid June or later) and disappear by October, so usually first cut and last (late 4th) cut hay is safer than 2nd or 3rd cut. Blister beetles tend to cluster in large groups often in the area of 1-2 bales but hay growers know that if left alone after cutting, most blister beetles evacuate the field. You need to know your alfalfa hay grower; ask him what he did to eliminate blister beetles in the field.
Buy only first cut or October hay. Inspect alfalfa hay before you buy and again before you feed.
Protect Riparian Areas
Riparian refers to the vegetation and soils alongside streams, creeks, rivers, and ponds. These are precious areas that can easily be damaged by horses.
Manure, urine, overgrazing, destruction of trees, and the creation of muddy banks all can lead to less vegetation, warmer water temperatures, more algae, less fish, and decreased wildlife habitat. Monitor and limit horses’ access to natural water sources so that a natural buffer zone of grasses, brush and trees is preserved around the edges of ponds and creeks. This buffer zone is essential for filtering nutrients from excess runoff before it enters the water.
Choke cherries are ripe during August. Although horses don’t eat the berries, the leaves are poisonous to horses and the berries attract bears.
It is starting to get hot, yes, even here in the foothills of the Northern Colorado Rockies. The horses are sweating more, drinking more and eating more salt.
Horses should have access to salt at all times. I provide each of my horses with two salt blocks. One is a plain white salt block that is simply table salt; sodium chloride. The other is a calcium/phosphorus trace mineral salt block. It is sometimes called a 12:12 block because it contains 12% calcium and 12% phosphorus or an equal ratio of calcium to phosphorus, which is good for most adult horses. Each of my horses shows a preference for one block or the other but all choose different blocks at different times.
Posted in Feeding and Nutrition, tagged care, feeders, feeding, grain, hay, horse, horse care, management, minerals, nutrition, pasture, psyllium, safety, salt, water on May 21, 2010| Leave a Comment »
Keeping Your Horse Healthy – Part 1
Mary keeps her two horses at the same boarding stable where you’ve just moved Jones, your new gelding. Mary’s gelding Blaze has heaves, requires specialized shoeing that costs twice the normal fee, gets special feed for his dry skin, and each day has a 50/50 chance of being sound to ride. Her mare Dolly is gorgeous but she’s constantly on a diet, is a chronic wood chewer and tail rubber and frequently colics. The problems that Mary has with her horses have you in a panic every time Jones lies down or stumbles.
The bad news is that Blaze and Dolly might always have these problems and Mary will always have higher than normal feed, veterinary, and farrier bills.
The good news is that all of these problems are preventable with good health management. If you are a keen observer and follow good horse management, Jones will stay in tiptop shape and your budget won’t bust!
Our horses depend on us to take good care of them. We need to pay specific attention to feeding, sanitation, grooming, hoof care, veterinary care, and facilities management.
Your horse will quickly tell you that feeding is the number one priority! In fact, a good appetite is the best sign that your horse is feeling well. But if you left it up to your horse, he’d eat himself sick. So you need to keep your horse at a healthy weight. If he is too thin, he may lack energy, be weak, cold and less able to ward off illness. If he is overweight, his limbs are unduly stressed and he’s more likely to founder. Know your horse’s weight so you can feed and deworm him accurately. Use a weight tape to encircle his heart girth. Record his weight and monitor it frequently. A long winter coat can be deceiving.
Hay is the mainstay of any horse’s diet. Grass, the traditional “safe” horse hay, includes timothy, brome, and orchard grass. Alfalfa hay which has higher protein, three times the calcium and more vitamins than grass hay, is often fed to young, growing horses and lactating broodmares.
Good hay is free of mold, dust, and weeds and has a bright green color and a fresh smell. It is leafy, soft, and dry but not brittle.
Feed about 2 pounds of hay per day for every 100 pounds of body weight. A 1000 # horse would get 20 pounds split into two 10 pound feedings. Feed hay by weight not flakes. Two flakes of dense alfalfa hay could weigh as much as 14 pounds while two flakes of fluffy, loose grass might only weigh 4 pounds!
Grain should be fed only to horses that require it; many do not. Young horses, horses in hard work, pregnant mares, and mares with foals usually need grain and supplements. Oats provide fiber (from their hulls) and energy (from the kernel) and are the safest horse grain. Corn has a very thin covering so does not provide much fiber but provides twice the energy content as the same volume of oats. Commercial feeds come as pellets or grain mixes. Pellets can contain both hay and grain. “Sweet feed” grain mixes are usually made up of oats or barley and corn, molasses and a protein pellet.
Grain should be fed by weight, not volume. A two pound coffee can holds 1.1 pounds of bran, 2.1 pounds of sweet feed, and 2.9 pounds of pelleted feed so feeding by “the can” is inaccurate.
To avoid competition, fighting, and unequal rations, feed each horse individually. If a horse gobbles his grain, it can cause choking, inadequate chewing and poor feed utilization. To slow him down, feed hay first, and then grain. Add golf ball sized rocks to the grain and use a large shallow pan rather than a small, deep bucket.
Minerals Because soils, hay and grain vary widely in their mineral content, your horse needs free choice trace mineral salt. Trace mineral salt is regular “table salt” (sodium chloride) with important minerals added. An even better mineral block is a 12% Calcium/12% Phosphorus Trace Mineral Salt Block.
Water If a horse lacks water, he can lose his appetite and colic. A horse drinks about 8-10 gallons of water a day usually an hour or two after eating hay. But be sure a horse always has good quality, free-choice water.
In winter, a horse should not be expected to eat snow, as it would take too long and too much body heat for him to melt it.
When a horse is hot from exercise, only let him sip water. Walk him in between sips. When he has stabilized, feed him grass hay and allow him his fill of water.
Pasture Since pasture provides excellent exercise and nutrients, make best use of it by grazing it when it is 4 to 6 inches tall. As soon as it is grazed down, move the horse to another pasture.
Before turning a horse out to pasture the first time, give him a full feed of hay. Limit grazing to one-half hour per day for the first two days; then one-half hour twice a day for two days; then one hour twice a day and so on. Pasture horses can quickly become overweight or founder from too much lush pasture.
Feeding Safety Since the digestive system of horses is designed to handle small frequent meals, feed two to three times every day. Feed at the same time every day. Horses have a strong biological clock; feeding late or inconsistently can result in colic and unpleasant stable vices and bad habits.
Make all changes in feed gradually whether it’s a change in type or amount. If your horse gets 2 pounds of grain per feeding and you want to increase, feed 2 ½ pounds for at least two days. Then increase to 3 pounds.
If you are changing hay, feed ¾ “old” hay and ¼ of “new” hay for 2 days. Then feed ½ old hay and ½ new hay for two days. Then feed ¼ old hay and ¾ new hay for 2 days. Finally, feed all new hay.
Don’t feed a horse immediately after hard work and don’t work a horse until at least one hour after a full feed. If you feed 2 pounds of grain or more per feeding and your horse has not been exercised for a few days, warm him up slowly to avoid “tying up” his muscles. If your horse will be out of work, decrease his grain ration. When he comes back to work, increase grain gradually.
Feeding at ground level is natural and provides a horse with a good neck and back stretch. But if a horse eats sand with his feed, it can accumulate at the bottom of his intestine and he could colic. Use feeders or rubber mats in the feeding area and consider feeding psyllium to purge sand from the intestines.
Feeders need to be clean and safe. Moldy or spoiled feed can cause colic. Sharp edges, broken parts, loose wires or nails can injure your horse’s head. Tie hay nets securely and high enough so your horse can not get his leg caught in the net.