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Archive for the ‘Long Lining’ Category

October 2013
Translated into Spanish:

101 Ground Training Exercises

for Every Horse and Handler
by Cherry Hill

101 Ground Training Exercises by Cherry Hill

101 Ground Training Exercises by Cherry Hill

101 Ejercicios de Entrenamiento Pie a Tierra

Para el Caballo y el Jinete

Cherry Hill

Publisher: Ediciones Tutor S.A.

101 Ground in Spanish

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So many of you have been asking me about my new book – well it is finally here !

101 GROUND TRAINING EXERCISES
for Every Horse & Handler

8 1/2″ x 11″
255 pages
over 200 drawings and photos
comb bound and punched for hanging

“Every moment you spend with your horse is an opportunity to instill good habits and develop his respect, trust, and willingness to work with you. All horses need a solid foundation of in-hand and guide-line training in order to be safe to handle and ride”.  

Cherry Hill’s comprehensive collection of 101 ground-training exercises leads you and your horse through catching, yielding, turning, sacking out, backing, longeing, long lining, doing obstacle work, and much more. Every exercise is fully illustrated and described in easy-to-follow, step-by-step language that you can refer to during your ground training work — simply hang the book in the barn or on a fence post, and your’re ready to go! The exercises include clear goals, variations, common problems to watch out for, and lesson reviews.

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What Every Horse Should Know by Cherry Hill

“Essential information for any horse owner.”  

Horsemen’s Yankee Pedlar, April 2011

“This book, a follow-up to the successful How to Think Like a Horse, is packed with information that every domestic horse needs to know in order to live a fulfulling life around humans. Regardless of discipline or age, there are certain lessons that we should all teach our horses in order to create a respectful relationship with them and eleiminate fear of people or their surroundings. Hill divides her book into threee sections: “No Fear”, “Leadership and Partnership”, and in-hand under-saddle exercises called “The Work”.

“Hill’s book reminds us that horses aren’t naturally adapted to live in our world, so if we want them to live happily alongside us, it’s our job to teach them how to act appropriately and enjoy domestic lie. Throughout the book there is essential information to better help us understand how our horse perceives our actions, and how we can make him more comfortable with things that he naturally has an aversion to. All of the advice is extremely practical and helps the reader to get inside the horse’s mind, in order to help him become well-adjusted to both humans and every day equipment. Well organized and full of photos and drawings, there is a lot to be learned from Hill’s newest book.”

“BOTTOM LINE: Essential information for any horse owner.”

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Hi Cherry,

I have purchased a new mare (2mths ago) after being out of the saddle for 16yrs.  This mare is 7yrs old & hadn’t been ridden regularly for the last 3yrs, apart from being forward she has shown no signs of being anything but quiet.
Her rushing, is the one issue i’m continuing to have, I know that this is due to the lack of regular handling over the past 3yrs.
Outside of a walk she just wants to take the bit and race…(at a walk I can ride her all day on a loose rein, she listens to my seat and aides, I can change directions and halt with no pressure on the rein or bit, but only at the walk), she fights me in every other gate…her head comes up & she looses her flow, she ignors all aides asking her to “slow” I don’t want to have to fight her at the bit & end up with a dead mouthed horse, I have never had heavy hands with any of my past horses & would like this mare to understand that pressure is gone when she slows & listens to my seat & voice, thing is as soon as she does slow & I release the pressure that brought the response I was after, the fight starts all over again (also I think I might clarify that, I don’t yank or see-saw her mouth, by fight I mean restrain her, I ask for collection & balance I ask for her to listen to my voice and my seat to try slow her pace again but the more I ask for slow the
more cranky she seems to get) I’ve had her teeth done, her back is not sore, I bought a brand new saddle that fits her correctly and I don’t feed her anything, I think if I fed her on top of what she gets just from her paddock she would founder (she is an extremly good doer and is very fat now), she has a salt & mineral lick but thats prettly much it, so no “hot” feed at all!
I am currently doing the only thing I know worked for a race horse I got from the track once, which is… apply a half check as soon as she starts to race, if I get no response I halt and ask for her to back but she refuses to back (she plants herself even when she’s collected and “on” the bit), if I apply slightly more pressure she will then just over collect and put her head on her chest (very frustrating) & I don’t know how to rectify this, I haven’t had this problem before & when I asked for movement last time she refused to back…with just a nudge / sqeeze from my legs she rared up, I in no way want to encourage that so have not pushed for her to back, hence I’m looking for answers.
I include “back” with ground exercises, which she does with no fuss but this hasn’t transfered under saddle, all these exercises that I’ve tried and have worked for me in the past, arn’t working on her, instead she’s getting “piggy” with the flat work and the ground exercises so I break up the routine & do different things with her…her past owners had her graded in both dressage and jumping so I don’t understand why she’s not responsive to me asking her to slow using my seat and half checks.
Due to her past education she is receptive to directional leg aides and that is helping with teaching her basic reining (with the exception to backing she is learning to neck rein ok) to help her move better with the cattle, all of this is at a walk and to use her outside of a walking pace I need her to losen up, slow down &; keep her head from reaching for the clouds, I don’t want to use martin gails or anything like it, I don’t believe she needs them, I just want to relax and calm her & get her responsive outside of a walk, she has such lovely movement when she’s not fighting.
I currently ride her with an egg butt snaffle bit (would you reccomend changing bits?), i’m trying different ground exercises & i’m also trying to lunge her but she doesn’t seem to yet understand my indicators for her to move out…(I don’t have a round yard, just open area and cattle yards) I have tried also to long rein her as an alternative to also get her responsive to my voice, but i’m not very good at not getting tangled, it is a good thing that she wasn’t phased by my inability to keep the long leads from falling down around her hoofs…I know that this is a long explanation, but I wanted to give you as much info as I possibly could…hope you can help & possibly advise me on some alternative exercises to try.
Kind Regards
Beth

Hi Beth,

Most of the elements of my answer and suggestions to you are already in your question. They include going back to ground training, that is in-hand work, free longeing, line longeing, and long lining and making a strong association with the mare that she can move in balance in each gait without rushing.

101 Longeing and Long Lining Exercises

Rushing is a sign that a horse has lost her balance and confidence.

When you have trouble with things when riding, it just shows the basics have never been established, so that means going back and reviewing everything from square one and finding where the holes are. In this mare’s case, I’d imagine if you trotted alongside her in-hand, she’d probably try to zoom ahead of you. If you free longed her, she would probably rush at the trot and canter in poor form and with a too-quick rhythm. And so on. So its no wonder that she would do the same when being ridden.

Doing simple things well with you on the ground will help make a solid connection between you and the mare. All of the exercises you do in-hand and when longeing and ground driving will be a balance act between driving aids and restraining aids, just as you use when riding.

You’ll be surprised at how working on the basics will improve the mare under saddle.

Some of my favorites exercises, whether as ground training exercises or when riding are:

Frequent transitions of all kinds, both upward and downward, between gaits and within gaits. So instead of trotting around and around, you’d only trot a few strides, then maybe walk or maybe extend the trot, or collect the trot, but always be changing things up. The more you develop a give and take with the mare, the more balanced and steady she will become when moving at one gait for an extended period of time.

Walk-Halt-Back-Trot out of the Back and then Walk and repeat

Walk-Trot 4 steps-Walk repeat and vary the number of steps of trot, increasing as long as the horse stays balanced and rhythmic.

Add lateral bending (turning) to any exercise when a horse starts to speed up. Lateral bending, when done correctly, causes a horse’s legs to automatically slow down. So two strides (4 beats) of trot straight, then a full circle and repeat, that sort of thing.

Yes you want to use half halts or checks as you ride and be sure to yield when the horse does soften and slow down.

As far as a bit change, more than likely that is not the problem. You should be able to do whatever you need to do with an egg butt snaffle.

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Hello Cherry,
I have a 3 yr old Trakehner X TB Gelding He just came home from 60 days of saddle training with an Event, TB trainer. I rode him 2 times during his training and was sent video’s of his progress. He is a lazy horse but was moving forward in the walk and trot when I rode him. Since coming home he is refusing to go forward under saddle. He will walk off for about 7-10 min and then he shuts down. I am using little to no contact on the reins. Riding in a Waterford D bit. He moves great off your leg, When he is going forward. When he stops and I apply leg he rises up as if ready to buck. When I use my long dressage whip on his rump he will kick out but still does not go forward. He will paw and sometimes try to bite me. I found that pushing him with my leg, “fighting” him to go forward is useless. He shuts down. If I sit there, let him relax, he will take a deep breath, then I can apply leg and say Walk On and usually he will go forward but sometimes it is just a step or two. He did well with a lead pony the other day but again after 10 min shut down. The trainer keeps telling me to stay after him but I refuse to fight him every time I ride. He is a very big horse, 16’3h I will never be able to push him when he is in shut down mode. I have started 2 young horses before him being the first rider on their backs. I ride english and have 30+ years experience. He is the first one that will not go forward. He is kind horse and thankfully has not reared up but I am afraid that will be next. I am riding in the same saddle, brand, model and tree size that the trainer used. I would appreciate any suggestions. I plan on having this horse for life. A partnership is a must. Thank you in advance,
C M B

Dear CMB,

I know this doesn’t help you solve your horse’s problems but it must be said. It is hard for me to imagine a horse coming from 60 days of saddle training and having this behavior. One of the most important goals of any training is to develop and preserve forward movement.


Check my website article page for many articles and Q&As related to this topic such as

Horse Won’t Move Forward

From what you describe, my inclination would be to go back to ground training to establish forward movement in a variety of situations. By ground training, I mean:

1. In-hand work including walk, trot, figures, obstacles.

Refer to my In Hand Checklist posted previously.

2. Longeing with or without tack, with focus on forward movement.

Benefits and Uses of Longeing

3. Long lining (ground driving) to establish moving forward with tack.

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If you are going to use a bit when training your horse, the logical choice would be a snaffle bit. Alternatives to using a bit are bitless bridles, bosals, sidepulls, halters and tackless. These topics will be discussed in future posts.

A snaffle is a mechanically simple bit that allows you to communicate with your horse in simple terms.  A snaffle bit transmits pressure in a direct line from your hands on the reins to the rings and mouthpiece of the bit to the horse’s mouth.

©  2010 Cherry Hill © Copyright Information

On a snaffle, there are no shanks.  Shanks are the vertical sidepieces on a curb bit to which the reins attach.  Shanks create leverage action.  The snaffle bit operates via direct pressure only. The mouthpiece of a snaffle can be jointed or solid.  The misconception that any bit with a jointed (or “broken”) mouthpiece is a snaffle has given rise to the misnomers: “long-shanked snaffle”, “tom-thumb snaffle”, and “cowboy snaffle”.  All of these are really jointed (or broken mouth) curbs.

The most common snaffle, the jointed O-ring, has four parts: two rings and a mouthpiece comprised of two arms.

A snaffle is customarily used with a brow band headstall that has a throatlatch.  Often a noseband is used with a snaffle.

Snaffle Action The snaffle is useful for teaching a horse to bend his neck and throatlatch laterally so that he can be turned in both directions.  It is also useful for teaching a horse to flex vertically in the lower jaw, at the poll, and at the neck muscles just in front of the withers.  Vertical flexion is necessary for gait and speed control as well as for stopping.

The bars are the flesh-covered portions of the lower jawbone between the incisors and the molars.  This is where the bit lies.  It is the action of the snaffle bit on the bars of the horse’s mouth that produces vertical flexion.

With a regularly configured snaffle, when one rein is pulled out to the side, let’s say the right, the bit will slide slightly through the mouth to the right and the primary pressure will be exerted by the ring on the left side of the horse’s face.  This will cause him to bend laterally and turn right.

When the right line is pulled backward, pressure will be exerted on the right side of the horse’s tongue, the right lower lip, the right corner of the mouth, the right side of the bars and on the left side of the horse’s face.  This will tend to cause the horse to bend laterally and begin to flex vertically so he shifts his weight rearward as he turns right.

Making Not Breaking by Cherry Hill

Making Not Breaking by Cherry Hill

When you pull backward on both lines, pressure will be applied to both corners of the mouth and across the entire tongue and the bit may contact the bars and the lower lips.  This causes a horse to flex vertically, shift his weight rearward, slow down, or stop.

Your hands have the capacity to turn the mildest bit into an instrument of abuse or the most severe bit into a delicate tool of communication.  Above all, good horsemanship is the key to a horse’s acceptance of the bridle.

The introduction of the bit and bridle occur during ground training such as longeing and ground driving.

Longeing and Long Lining the English and Western Horse

Longeing and Long Lining the English and Western Horse

Cherry Hill

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Surcingles

©  2010 Cherry Hill   © Copyright Information

A surcingle is a necessary piece of equipment for ground driving and is ideal for teaching a young horse about girth pressure. A surcingle for ground driving should have appropriate rings for driving lines, must fit a reasonable range of heart girths, be sturdy, safe, and easy care.

101 Longeing and Long Lining ExeercisesLong-lining is an important part of a young horse’s training. (Long lining is also referred to as ground driving.) It teaches acceptance of girth restriction, accustoms a horse to the presence and actions of a bit, and introduces bending. Long-lining is also a valuable means for fine-tuning certain points with intermediate and older horses: bending and flexion, flying changes, and upper level dressage movements.

A surcingle encircles a horse’s heart girth, acting as a mini-saddle and girth. For ground driving, the trainer runs long lines through the surcingle’s side rings in a horse’s early training and then through the top terrets or rings as the horse advances. A horse can be driven in front of the trainer, beside the trainer as both walk along, around the trainer in a circle, or in patterns such as figure eights or serpentines in the arena at large.


Most surcingles are designed to be used directly on the horse’s back, with a surcingle pad, or with a regular saddle pad. Some can be used over the top of a saddle. This is convenient because if a horse needs to be long-lined prior to riding, you won’t have to return to the barn to change tack.

However, using a surcingle over a saddle can create problems. It can slip from side to side when turning (the smooth leather covering of the surcingle padding + the the smooth leather of the saddle seat = slip, no friction). This is especially likely if the horse made a sudden wrong move such as young horses do. Slippage can be avoided if the surcingle is fastened excessively tight but extreme tightness can cause even a seasoned horse to buck!

Longeing and Long Lining the Western HorseAlso you might find when using a surcingle over the top of a saddle that when you are asking the horse to perform serpentines and flying changes, the long line of the “old bend” can get caught on the cantle of the saddle after the horse changed to the “new bend”. To remedy this, you can either “pitch a wave” in the line (without bumping the horse’s mouth) hoping to get the new outside line over on top of the seat of the saddle again OR you must stop the horse, gather up the lines, walk to the horse, lift the line from behind the cantle and then resume. After several such instances occurring just after a spectacular flying change where we couldn’t reward the horse with forward movement (instead had to stop and regroup), you’ll likely abandon over-the-saddle driving and use the traditional surcingle position, that is directly on the horse or with the use of a normal saddle pad.

Generally surcingles are comprised of a top portion and a girth. The top portion is made up of the saddle and the side pieces. The saddle consists of a padded pommel that sits on or behind the withers. The padding varies from a flat profile (1/2″ or less) saddle consisting of a thin layer of padding in the wither area to a high profile (2″ or more) saddle made up of two triangular-shaped blocks of padding. The padding and its covering varies from very soft to hard.

The saddle and side pieces have attached to them various terrets, large D rings, and small D-rings. The standard configuration is 2 large rings (or terrets) on top, 2 large rings on the sides, and 3 pair of small rings in between. Terrets are rigid, fixed rings that are screwed into the top of the saddle at the approximate position a rider’s hands would be. Because terrets do not move during the driving process, they are very desirable. In lieu of terrets, most surcingles have large D rings sewn or sewn and riveted into the top of the saddle. Some Ds stand in a rigid position – others are floppy. Rigid top rings are desirable because the lines flow through them freely.

In addition to the top terrets or rings, there is usually a set of large D rings on the side pieces of the surcingle for using the long lines in lower positions. These D rings might be sewn or sewn and riveted in place and vary from almost rigid to floppy. Either seem to work OK in the side position though I prefer rings that stand out to the side so the long lines can run freely through them.

There are a varying number and size of smaller D rings (customarily 3 pair) on the top of the surcingle for attaching side reins and other training equipment.

Most surcingles have two standard billet straps on each side such as are found on English saddles. Some surcingles have a single wider billet on each side. Most girths are a separate piece. The girth of a surcingle will vary in length depending on the design of the top portion of the surcingle and the size of horse the surcingle is intended for. The girths can range from 16 to 30 inches in length. The standard girth has two buckles on each side to correspond to the 2 girth billets. Most girths have at least one D ring sewn on the bottom side for the attachment of training equipment between the horse’s front legs.

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